Disease Book

As an information center about various diseases that commonly attack broiler chickens

Newcastle Disease

Newcastle Disease (ND) or also called tetelo, Cekak, pseudo vogelpest, pseudo fowl plaque, ranikhet or avian pneumoencephalitis is a systemic respiratory disease that is acute and highly contagious. This disease can attack broilers and laying hens in all age ranges. In broilers infection often occurs at the age of 3-4 weeks while in layers it occurs before the age of production (0-18 weeks) and after 35 weeks


Gumboro

Gumboro disease or also called infectious bursal disease is a disease that attacks the immune-forming organs of chickens. This disease generally attacks the bursa of Fabricius which is an important organ for the development of the chick's immune system. Generally, this disease attacks chickens aged 0-8 weeks in laying hens with the most sensitive age at the age of 3-6 weeks. Whereas in broilers, this disease can attack at all ages with cases that often appear at the age of 22-28 days


Colibacillosis

Colibacillosis is a disease in chickens caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria. This disease attacks chickens in all age groups, from chicks, juveniles/pullets, to adults when they have entered the egg-laying period.


Paratyphoids

Avian paratyphoid or often called paratyphoid is a disease in poultry caused by the Salmonella sp. Paratyphoid will cause acute septicemic disease in young chickens and chronic digestive infections in adult chickens. Paratyphoid causes a decrease in egg production, fertility and hatchability of chickens and the death of embryos and chicks


Avian Encephalomyelitis

Avian Encephalomyelitis (AE) or what is often called epidemic tremor is a disease in chickens with signs of central nervous system disorders.


Avian Influenza

Avian Influenza is a disease that attacks the organ systems of chickens. This virus comes from the Orthomyxoviridae group. This disease causes significant losses for livestock farmers, because the death rate (mortality) and morbidity rate in livestock are quite high, causing the culling rate to increase. This disease is zoonotic which, apart from being able to spread from birds to other birds, can also be transmitted from birds to humans.


Cacar Unggas

Types of Poultry Pox Fowl pox has two types, namely wet and dry: Dry Type Smallpox Generally attacks the skin on hairless parts of the body such as the area around the eyes, base of the beak, around the cloaca, feet and claws. In this area, lumps like warts will appear. This dry type of fowl pox has the following clinical symptoms: 1. Chickens look weak and thinner because their appetite has decreased drastically. If warts appear at the base of the beak, this makes it difficult for the bird to get food. 2. Shortness of breath, because the respiratory tract is disturbed by the appearance of warts at the base of the beak close to the nostrils. This dry type can usually be controlled, although it sometimes leaves small scars. The most important thing is to always make sure the chicken continues to consume its food. Because it helps maintain the body's immune system. The wet type is usually more dangerous. Because it often gives rise to secondary infections, thus further worsening the chicken's condition and can cause death if not treated immediately. Clinical symptoms commonly found in wet type of fowl pox include: White patches that develop on the mucous membranes of the mouth, throat, trachea and lungs (respiratory tract). This can cause respiratory problems and difficulty for chickens when eating. The wet type of fowl pox often attacks chickens and turkeys.


Candidiasis

Chicken candidiasis is a disease that often attacks broiler chickens and is a poultry disease caused by fungus. One of the fungi that causes this disease is Candida albicans. The nature of this disease in chickens is opportunistic. This means that this disease can attack chickens if the chicken's immune level is not good. Or it could also be that when farmers provide food that is of poor quality, candidiasis will have the opportunity to enter and infect the chickens. Another opportunity that causes candidiasis to enter the chicken's body is that the surrounding environment is less clean and unhealthy.


Chicken Anemia Syndrome

Chicken Anemia Syndrome (CAS) is a viral disease (caused by a virus) which generally attacks young chickens. This disease is acute and is characterized by the appearance of aplastic anemia or a condition where the bone marrow is unable to produce new blood cells in sufficient quantities. Apart from that, CAS is also characterized by atrophy of lymphoid organs (tissue damage (necrosis) of lymphoid organs)


Chlamydiosis

Chlamydiosis is a disease caused by Chlamydophila bacteria which attacks the respiratory system of chickens and can even attack the spleen and liver of chickens. Chlamydophila bacteria can grow and live in chicken feces. This can happen if the bacteria are already in the chicken's spleen, so they can come out in the feces. That way, other chickens can be infected easily if the farmer does not maintain the cleanliness and hygiene of the coop. Symptoms of chlamydiosis include: 1) The chicken will have a fever and also appear to be shivering with cold. 2) There will be purulent exudate that looks like pus on the nose or chicken eyes. This is a mixture of bacteria and damaged tissue. 3) The color of the chicken's feces will turn gray green with blood and the chicken will experience diarrhea. 4) The chicken looks weak and lethargic and its appetite has decreased drastically.


Chronic Respiratory Disease

CRD is a respiratory disease in poultry caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a microorganism that does not have a cell wall, so to treat it you cannot use antibiotic preparations whose mechanism of action is on the cell wall. Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection is found at all ages. The incidence of CRD in chicks is related to infection by other pathogens and the presence of various stress factors. Chickens are very sensitive to Mycoplasma during the first few days and the body's resistance will increase with age. The clinical symptoms that are often encountered are wet snoring accompanied by runny nose and eyes as well as coughing. In the eyes there is a foamy exudate and sometimes accompanied by swelling in the eye area.


Coryza/ Snot

Snot disease can attack all ages of chickens and especially attacks chicks, usually this disease appears due to seasonal changes and is often found in tropical areas. Seasonal changes will usually affect the health of chickens


Fowl Typhoid

1. Baby Chickens Baby chickens infected with fowl typhoid usually show several symptoms, such as their appetite appearing to decrease significantly. So, if the chick looks weak, is often sleepy, and also grows more slowly than its normal cycle, then it is very likely that this is a symptom of fowl typhoid disease. Also pay attention if there is white material around the cloaca. 2. Adult Chicken The symptoms in adult chickens usually appear more clearly than in baby chickens. Because his physique shows several irregularities which of course can be seen with the naked eye. If an adult chicken suffers from fowl typhoid, usually its wings will look hanging, thin, then its feathers will start to become dull, its comb will be pale and it will squeak. And just like baby chickens, adult chickens will also experience a large decrease in appetite. This makes him thin. Chickens will experience diarrhea with greenish yellow feces. And if an infected chicken is cut open, its liver will be dark red. If you find the symptoms above, you should immediately take treatment. Because if the case is severe enough, the chicken can die within about a week after contracting the disease.


Heat Stress

Heat stress is a disorder experienced by chickens due to environmental air temperatures exceeding the normal temperature (>28oC) in the comfort zone. This results in chickens being unable to balance the production and dissipation of body heat. Please note that the chicken's comfort zone is in the temperature range of 25-28oC with humidity of 60-70%. At a temperature of 33°C for several hours it can even cause death in birds.


Helicopter Disease

Reovirus (a disease often called helicopter disease) will infect the villi of the epithelial cells of the small intestine which can cause problems with digestion and absorption of nutrients so that the target body weight is not achieved


Inclusion Body Hepatitis

Almost all Adenovirus infections do not show clear clinical symptoms. The comb looks pale, the wattles and facial skin are also pale, depressed, weak and possibly accompanied by other diseases. The death rate (mortality) increases for 3-5 days, persists for several days then decreases. Sudden death is usually seen in chickens less than 6 weeks old. Mortality usually ranges between 2% – 40%, especially when the chicken is less than 3 weeks old.


Kolera Unggas

Poultry cholera is divided into several types, namely acute, sub-acute and chronic types. a. Acute type clinical symptoms often occur several hours before death and no previous symptoms are found. b. The sub-acute type (between acute and chronic) is often characterized by fever, feather loss, decreased egg production, increased respiratory frequency, as well as cyanosis of the wattle and comb and accompanied by greenish diarrhea. c. The chronic type occurs in birds that survive an acute infection. Symptoms are characterized by swelling of the wattles, the chicken is stressed, difficulty breathing, the bird is seen turning its neck to one side and experiencing limping on its legs.


Laringotrakheitis

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an economically important respiratory disease of poultry. This highly contagious disease is caused by Gallid alpha herpesvirus type 1 (GaHV-1), commonly known as infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). This virus can be easily transmitted through infected birds and objects. Weak biosecurity, transport of infected birds, and distribution of contaminated waste facilitate the spread of the virus. Clinical signs of respiratory disease are not pathognomonic. Diagnosis is confirmed by real-time PCR and histopathology. The application of biosecurity is necessary for prevention, but vaccination is generally used to control disease in endemic areas throughout the world. Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute and highly contagious herpesvirus infection of chickens and pheasants characterized by severe dyspnea, cough, and rales. It can also be a subacute disease with discharge from the nose and eyes, tracheitis, conjunctivitis, and mild rales. The disease is caused by Gallid herpesvirus I, commonly known as infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV).


Leucocytozoonosis

Leucocytozoonosis can infect all ages of broilers and laying hens. In broiler chickens, the disease generally appears at the age of 25-30 days. The incidence of Leucocytozoonosis can be accompanied by clinical symptoms or without clinical symptoms. The clinical symptoms of Leucocytozoonosis cases are metallic green feces, sometimes followed by vomiting of blood, decreased appetite and red bleeding spots on the skin, thighs and chest. Infections that do not show clinical symptoms are characterized by decreased egg production and body weight less than standard